Force, acceleration, and trajectory are essential in track and field. When understanding these concepts from physics, athletes can appreciate elements of technique learned from coaches.

The following graph is excerpted from The Science of Track & Field: Volume 1 (Copyright 2014, All Rights Reserved).

Discussion Questions:
- What information is contained in this graph?
- Name several events from track and field which involve similar patterns of motion as described by this graph.
- What is the maximum height of the device?
- What occurs during the portion of the graph where no acceleration is recorded at all?
- Describe the trajectory of the device.
- What occurs at approximately 3 seconds?
- What forces act on the wireless device?
- What is the maximum force?
- What causes the maximum force to occur?
- How could the maximum force be reduced? Increased?

**Additional Information**
Individuals seeking to understand the science of track and field have at their disposal a more traditional source of knowledge pertaining to the motion of balls.

Reflection Question: How does the motion of a ball compare to the motion during the following track and field elements?
- Running
- Jumping
- Throwing

The graphs below are excerpted from The Science of Balls: Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (Copyright 2014, All Rights Reserved).

Discussion Questions
- What is the relevance of each graph to track and field? Name at least one event which is similar to each graph.
- In Graph 1, how far does the ball travel?
- What is the highest speed obtained by the ball in Graph 1?
- Why does the acceleration change in Graph 1?
- Sketch the motion of the ball in Graph 2. What is the trajectory?
- Describe the shape of the velocity in Graph 2, and compare it to Graph 1. Why are they different?
- Describe the shape of the acceleration in Graph 2, and compare it to Graph 1. Why are they different?
- What is the shape of the curve in Graph 3? Describe the trajectory of the ball.
- What forces act on the ball in Graph 3? Are these different than in Graphs 1 or 2? If so, how?
- How does the material construction affect the graphs? What would happen if the ball were made out of hard plastic? (The dodge ball is made out of foam.)

**Additional Information**
What happens when a muscle contracts? What types of chain reactions are required in muscles for completing complex moves? The study biophysics provides some insight into these interesting questions.

The two graphs below are excerpted from The Science of Track and Field: Volume 2 (Copyright 2014, All Rights Reserved).

Discussion Questions
- In these two graphs, what is the maximum reading? What is the minimum reading?
- What are the similarities between the two graphs?
- What are the differences between the two graphs?
- In these graphs, what type of motion does each region represent, from left to right: a) the initial straight line, b) the first spike, c) the low region, d) the next set of spikes, e) the final line?
- What has happened to cause the observed differences in the final third of these graphs?

**Additional Information**

The science and math of track and field are topics of new books from Schottenbauer Publishing. Presenting data from real and simulated conditions collected by the science writer and publisher M. Schottenbauer, Ph.D., these books bring the "high tech" end of track and field to audiences everywhere!

In these books, students can enjoy learning about common aspects of track and field. One series of books, written for elementary school students, focuses on geometry. Another series of science books features graphs and data; these illustrate common mathematical functions, plus a variety of concepts from physics. The science books can be integrated into classes such as math, physical science, physics, physical education, and health, anywhere from 7th grade through high school, as well as some introductory college and university classes.

The books directly pertaining to track and field include the following:

Geometry Workbooks
- The Geometry of Summer Olympic Sports

Graphs & Data for Science Lab: Multi-Volume Series
- The Science of Track & Field
- Volume 1: Force & Acceleration
- Volume 2: Biophysics
- Volume 3: Video Analysis

- The Science of Athletic Training
- Volume 1: Force & Acceleration
- Volume 2: Biophysics
- Volume 3: Video Analysis

Anthologies of 28 Graphs
- The Science of Track & Field
- The Science of Physical Fitness
- The Science of Summer Olympic Sports

These books are complemented by a series of science books on other popular sports topics, including Olympic sports, athletic training, exercise equipment, gymnastics, yoga, ballet, and more. Additional books which may be relevant for comparison and contrast to track and field activities include:

Geometry Workbooks
- The Geometry of Gymnastics
- The Geometry of Yoga

Graphs & Data for Science Lab: Multi-Volume Series
- The Science of Exercise Equipment
- Volume 1: Force & Acceleration
- Volume 2: Biophysics
- Volume 3: Video Analysis

- The Science of Gymnastics
- Volume 1: Force & Acceleration
- Volume 2: Biophysics
- Volume 3: Video Analysis

- The Science of Yoga, Pilates, & Ballet
- Volume 1: Force & Acceleration
- Volume 2: Biophysics
- Volume 3: Video Analysis

Anthologies of 28 Graphs
- The Science of Gymnastics
- The Science of Yoga

Most of the books above are available in both English and German translation. The books pertaining to the geometry of Olympic sports are also available in 15 world languages.

The same publisher offers similar books on additional popular topics, including sports, transportation, construction, environment, music, entertainment, and general physics. All of these book series are available in several formats and languages, including the following:

Geometry Workbooks
- Print & E-Book Editions
- Available in English & German
- Olympics Books Available in 15 Languages

Graphs & Data for Science Lab: Multi-Volume Series
- Print Editions
- Available in English & German

Anthologies of 28 Graphs
- Print Editions
- English Only

**Additional Information**

**Unbeatable Specials**

With Kindle Unlimited ($9.99/month) at Amazon.com, you can read all e-books from Schottenbauer Publishing for no extra charge! Amazon offers Free 30 Day Trials of Kindle Unlimited. With this deal, trial members can read all Schottenbauer Publishing e-books free! This includes all the geometry workbooks, plus "The World in a Graph," "Alphabets of the World," textbooks on the science of music, all the e-book puzzles, and the educational novels by M. Schottenbauer, Ph.D.